Louisa & Natalie's Journey: Timeline

This timeline has been constructed to support, contextualise and enrich your knowledge and understanding of Louisa & Natalie's Journey. As you are following the journey, you may like to look at the timeline to understand what is happening in the Netherlands, Germany and other areas in Europe from 1933-1945.

Some events & dates are linked to further information - click on the event to find out more.


January 30: Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

January 1933: Many Jewish workers are fired from their jobs

March 22: Dachau concentration camp opens

April 1: Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses

April 7: 'Gleichschaltung' begins - laws that bar Jews from having jobs in the civil service, university, and governments/councils are introduced

April 26: Gestapo established

May 10: Public burning of books written by Jews, 'political opponents', and others not approved by the state


August: Hitler declares himself the Fuhrer (Leader) and Chancellor of the Reich


May 31: Jews barred from serving in the German armed forces

September 15: "Nuremberg Laws": anti-Jewish racial laws introduces; Jews are no longer considered German citizens


March 3: Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions

June 17: Himmler is appointed as the Chief of German Police

July: Sachsenhausen concentration camp opens


July: Buchenwald concentration camp opens


April 26: Jews owning property in the Reich had to register it with the authorities

October 5: Germans mark all Jewish passports with a letter "J" to restrict Jews from movement

November 9-10: November Pogrom (sometimes referred to as 'Kristallnacht' or 'Night of Broken Glass': anti-Jewish pogrom in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen).

November 12: Law passed forcing all Jews to transfer shops or retail businesses to Aryan ownership

November 15: All Jewish students permanently excluded from German schools

December 12: One billion Marks fine to be paid by German Jews for the destruction of property during November Pogrom

December: The 'Kindertransport' scheme starts operation


September 1: Beginning of World War II: Germany invades Poland

September 21: Heydrich gives orders to establish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

October 12: Germany begins deportation of Austrian and Czech Jews to Poland

October 28: First Polish ghetto established in Piotrków

November 23: Jews in German-occupied Poland forced to wear an arm band or yellow star


May 7: Lodz Ghetto (Litzmannstadt) sealed: 165,000 people in 1.6 square miles

May 10: Germany invades the Netherlands

May 14: German aeroplanes bomb Rotterdam

May: German occupation authorities banned Jews in the Netherlands from the civil service and required Dutch Jews to register the assets of their business enterprises

May 20: Concentration camp established at Auschwitz

November 16: Warsaw Ghetto sealed, containing 500,000 people


January 10: German authorities required all Dutch Jews to register themselves as Jews

February 1: Rounding up of Polish Jews by German authorities for transfer to Warsaw Ghetto

February 25: General strike by Dutch workers, following the rounding up, arrest and deportation to Mauthausen and Buchenwald of several young Jews

February: Segregation of all Jews from the general Dutch population & incarceration of 15,000 Jews in to German forced labour camps. 'Foreign' and 'stateless' Jews were sent to Westerbork transit camp

March: Adolf Eichmann appointed head of the department for Jewish Affairs of the Reich Security Main Office

June 22: Germany invades the Soviet Union

July 31: Heydrich appointed by Göring to implement the "Final Solution"

September 1: German Jews required to wear yellow star of David with the word "Jude"

September: Hitler orders the deportation of all Jews still in the 'Greater German Reich'

September 28-29: Massacre of 34,000 Jews at Babi Yar

October: Opening of Auschwitz II (Birkenau) for the purpose of extermination of Jews; Gypsies, Poles, Russians, and others

December 8: Chelmno (Kulmhof) extermination camp begins operations: 340,000 Jews, 20,000 Poles and Czechs murdered by April 1943


January 20: Wannsee Conference in Berlin: Heydrich outlines plan to murder Europe's Jews

March 17: Extermination begins in Belzec; by end of 1942 600,000 Jews murdered

April 29: Jews in the Netherlands forced to wear a yellow 'Star of David' badge on their clothing

May: Extermination by gas begins in Sobibor extermination camp; by October 1943, 250,000 Jews murdered

June: Jewish partisan units established in the forests of Belorussia and the Baltic States

July 22: Germans establish Treblinka concentration camp

Summer: Deportation of Jews to extermination centres from Belgium, Croatia, France, the Netherlands, and Poland; armed resistance by Jews in ghettos of Kletzk, Kremenets, Lakhva, Mir, Tuchin, and Weisweiz

September: 'Special units' consisting of Dutch collaborators were created to search for Jews in hiding

Winter: Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece and Norway to extermination centres: Jewish partisan movement organised in forests near Lublin


March: Liquidation of ghetto in Krakow

April 19: Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins as Germans attempt to liquidate 70,000 inhabitants; Jewish underground fights Nazis until early June

May: Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto.

June: Himmler orders the liquidation of all ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union

Summer: Armed resistance by Jews in Bedzin, Bialystok, Czestochowa, Lvov, and Tarnów ghettos. Most Jews in the Netherlands have been deported by Summer of 1943

Autumn: Liquidation of large ghettos in Minsk, Vilna (Vilnius), and Riga

October 14: Armed revolt in Sobibor extermination camp


June 6: D-Day: Allied invasion at Normandy

July 24: Russians liberate Majdanek extermination camp

September 3: Last train leaves Westerbork transit camp for Auschwitz

October 7: Revolt by inmates at Auschwitz; one crematorium blown up

November: Last transport of Jews deported from Theresienstadt (Terezin) to Auschwitz


January 17: Evacuation of Auschwitz; beginning of death march

January 25: Beginning of death march for inmates of Stutthof

April 6-10: Death march of inmates of Buchenwald

April 30: Hitler commits suicide

May 8: V-E Day: Germany surrenders; end of Third Reich